[123] Rain may be harvested through the use of rainwater tanks; treated to potable use or for non-potable use indoors or for irrigation. An observation study of island effect bands: precipitation producers in Southern California. ⟩ Large rain drops become increasingly flattened on the bottom, like hamburger buns; very large ones are shaped like parachutes. [126] Rain can also bring joy, as some consider it to be soothing or enjoy the aesthetic appeal of it. [139], The northern half of Africa is occupied by the world's most extensive hot, dry region, the Sahara Desert. [18] Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. = They are widespread on Africa, and are also found in India, the northern parts of South America, Malaysia, and Australia. [60], The fine particulate matter produced by car exhaust and other human sources of pollution forms cloud condensation nuclei, leads to the production of clouds and increases the likelihood of rain. "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification", "Tropical Broadleaf Evergreen Forest: The Rainforest", "Mediterranean or Dry Summer Subtropical Climate", "Chapter 5 - Principal Hazards in U.S.doc", "Classroom Resources – Argonne National Laboratory", "8 Inch Non-Recording Standard Rain Gauge", "Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network Main Page", "Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment Program", "NOAA's National Weather Service Main Page", "Corrections to Radar-Estimated Precipitation Using Observed Rain Gauge Data: A Thesis", "Southern Africa Satellite Derived Rainfall Estimates Validation", "Measure of rainfall time structure using the dimensionless n-index", "Fact Sheet No. Rainfall rates downwind of cities are increased between 48% and 116%. [116] QPF can be generated on a quantitative, forecasting amounts, or a qualitative, forecasting the probability of a specific amount, basis. Warm fronts are followed by extended periods of light rain and drizzle due to the fact that, after the warm air rises above the cooler air (which remains on the ground), it gradually cools due to the air's expansion while being lifted, which forms clouds and leads to precipitation. [108] 1988 rain in the U.S. [38] A wide variety of weather can be found along an occluded front, with thunderstorms possible, but usually their passage is associated with a drying of the air mass. Extreme weather events are unusual or damaging weather events, including storms, fires, rainfall, and drought. If enough moisture and upward motion is present, precipitation falls from convective clouds (those with strong upward vertical motion) such as cumulonimbus (thunder clouds) which can organize into narrow rainbands. In the U.S., the Midwest and Northeast have seen the strongest increases in heavy precipitation events. [67], Rainbands are cloud and precipitation areas which are significantly elongated. To produce radar accumulations, rain rates over a point are estimated by using the value of reflectivity data at individual grid points. A Climatological and composite study of cold season banded precipitation in the Northeast United States. through radiative cooling, or ground contact with cold terrain). [20] In clouds below freezing, when ice crystals gain enough mass they begin to fall. [175] There is evidence from samples of basalt brought back by the Apollo missions that the Moon has been subject to lava rain. Coming a year after the destructive 2018 floods that killed around 20 people, the heavy downpours were debilitating for the people who depend mostly on farming. Destin| Given the current record season, thus far, August look out you must turned out to be surprisingly but happily just above average, in terms of named storms. [125], Cultural attitudes towards rain differ across the world. ⟩ [90], Rain is measured in units of length per unit time, typically in millimeters per hour,[91] or in countries where imperial units are more common, inches per hour. [102] For instance, river flood control, sewer management and dam construction are all areas where planners use rainfall accumulation data. Rainforests are also responsible for 28% of the world's oxygen turnover. Plastic gauges have markings on the inner cylinder down to 0.25 mm (0.0098 in) resolution, while metal gauges require use of a stick designed with the appropriate 0.25 mm (0.0098 in) markings. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms and from occasional tropical cyclones. Orographic or relief rainfall is caused when masses of air are forced up the side of elevated land formations, such as large mountains (often referred to as an upslope effect). Moisture is removed by orographic lift, leaving drier air (see katabatic wind) on the descending and generally warming, leeward side where a rain shadow is observed. 3: Water in the Atmosphere", "Quantitative Precipitation Forecast: Its Generation and Verification at the Southeast River Forecast Center", "Optimization of quantitative precipitation forecast time horizons used in river forecasts", "Sensitivity of quantitative precipitation forecast to height dependent changes in humidity", "Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecast for Flood Prediction: An Application", "Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) from Weather Prediction Models and Radar Nowcasts, and Atmospheric Hydrological Modelling for Flood Simulation", "The significance of socio-economic characteristics for adult seasonal body-weight fluctuations: a study in north-western Benin", "Harvesting, Storing, and Treating Rainwater for Domestic Indoor Use", "The effect of weather on mood, productivity, and frequency of emotional crisis in a temperate continental climate", "Sudden spell of rain lifts mood in Delhi", "Praying for rain: the intersection of weather and religion", "Precipitation of the Individual States and of the Conterminous States", "Monsoon, Orography, and Human Influence on Asian Rainfall", "Chapter-II Monsoon-2004: Onset, Advancement and Circulation Features". 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